Place Tools

Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (FCAS)


FCAS Resource Center Photo


 Features                      Videos


What’s New?



Mapping Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations in Asia and the Pacific: The ADB Experience

This study maps out the major weaknesses of each fragile situation on the latest country performance assessment exercises. It identifies the overall common issues that require special attention when crafting strategies and implementing programs and projects. Rethinking the Asian Development Bank’s engagement in these fragile countries is critically important. This must be backed by a comprehensive understanding of the governance, institutional, political, and social issues that are behind each country’s exposure to conflict or fragility.


Pacific youth join ADB co-hosted workshop on decent work

The Asian Development Bank, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Youth Council hosted a youth consultation and training workshop in Suva, Fiji on 10 May 2016. Youth representatives from nine Pacific countries discussed challenges and opportunities in securing decent work, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS). ADB Pacific Subregional Office regional director Robert Jauncey gave opening remarks, and ADB focal point for FCAS Patrick Safran presented on Fragility in the Pacific: Challenge for the Youth.


Personnel Training and Capacity Development Plan: Improving Service Delivery in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia

The Chuuk Public Utility Corporation prepared the Personnel Training and Capacity Development Plan for its staff to improve the delivery of electricity, water, and sewerage services to residents, and to reduce its reliance on external expertise. The plan also seeks to improve service delivery and operations efficiency at the lowest cost to customers. The plan was prepared under ADB's regional technical assistance project Enhancing ADB’s Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations.


Experts' Roundtable Meeting on Assessing Fragility for a Differentiated Approach in Dealing with Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations: Proceedings

This publication captures the presentations and discussions of experts and policy makers during the Experts’ Roundtable Meeting on Assessing Fragility for a Differentiated Approach in Dealing with Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations, held on 15–16 June 2015 in Bangkok. The roundtable meeting aimed to generate broader awareness of fragility and conflict assessments, debate what the next generation of assessments should look like, discuss how fragility and conflict assessments can be conducted at the subnational level, and determine how these tools can best inform development partners and governments, and contribute to effective programming and policy responses on the ground.


Understanding Land Issues and their Impact on Tourism Development

The Government of the FSM is keen to improve the business environment for tourism, setting out an agenda for key tourism development reforms. To guide the planning and implementation of tourism development in the FSM, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) conducted a political economy analysis of the impact of land issues on tourism development, focusing on Pohnpei, one of the FSM’s largely autonomous four states.


Understanding the Political Economy of Vanuatu

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been a development partner of Vanuatu since 1981. In 2014, ADB prepared a macro-level analysis of the political economy of Vanuatu to inform its current and future operations in the country and thereby enhance aid effectiveness.1 ADB’s operational plan for fragile and conflict-affected situations and its Pacific regional approach call for a high level of understanding of the local context through a political economy analysis of its Pacific developing member countries.


Understanding the Local Context: Fragility Assessment of Development Projects in Nepal

ADB’s experience in Nepal shows that fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS) present the most challenging—and, at times, unpredictable—development context. Political and social issues in FCAS can affect implementation of a development project. Considering that FCAS vary and are usually contextual, understanding the local context should be a prerequisite for a coherent and relevant development assistance. This publication presents the how-to’s, experiences, and lessons of fragility assessment on three ADB projects in rural infrastructure, urban infrastructure, and commercial agriculture in Nepal.










Fragile, Conflict-Affected Situations Need New Development Approach – ADB


MANILA, PHILIPPINES (15 November 2016) - Development partners need to improve their approach to promote sustainable development in countries that have fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS) through critical analysis of economic, structural, social, political, and institutional issues in each country and by customizing interventions based on the local context, says a new Asian Development Bank (ADB) report published today.

Read more.







Don't just define fragility – understand it, act on it

By Patrick Safran


Doing development in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCAS) comes with unique challenges, to be dealt with through the right actions based on a proper understanding – not just based on narrow definitions.

Read more.




Blog poll: Preserve our ocean to protect our life

By Patrick Safran


In our May blog poll, we asked readers what they think is the most urgent intervention to manage our oceans more sustainably. Over half (55%) of the respondents in the survey picked curbing marine pollution as the priority for sustainable management of oceans. The ocean cannot absorb and degrade our waste indefinitely; we must rethink our relationship with the ocean, and learn how to behave respectfully toward it. To save the main source of life on the planet before the damage is irreversible, we need to educate or re-educate ourselves, and our communities. Read more.




Small is beautiful, but fragile in the Pacific

By Patrick Safran


Operating in an environment where “conflict begets fragility, and fragility begets conflict” is indeed complicated and the development community does pay special attention to conflict-affected countries. This idea, however, does not hold true in small Pacific island nations, most of which are considerably peaceful but equally fragile. Pacific countries may not be buffeted with violent conflict, but they do experience other dimensions of fragility. Read more.






Measuring subnational conflict to achieve SDG 16

By Cyrel San Gabriel


Economic and political stability of a country can be measured by how peaceful it is as a whole. Subnational conflict, however, takes place in certain remote areas and is often overlooked by the development community’s peace filters and fragility assessments. But failing to adjust the peace lens to a subnational level may hamper efforts toward meeting Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG16) on achieving just, peaceful and inclusive societies. Read more.






Gender-inclusive constitution key to Nepal’s transition from fragility to development

By Sharada Jnawali


For several weeks now, Nepal has seen violent clashes between protestors and government forces over a proposed new constitution that would divide the country into federal states. Read more.








7 symptoms of fragility in Pacific developing countries

By Cyrel San Gabriel


Donors spend billions of dollars on aid to countries with fragile and conflict-affected situations. However, a huge chunk of that money is wasted as resources are mishandled and programs not sustained. According to a 2007 UN study, failing states due to conflict and fragility cost the global economy up to $267 billion a year. We definitely need to rethink how we work in fragile situations, and—as prescribed by the OECD—the first step is identifying dimensions of conflict and fragility within a country before planning for large- or small-scale development programs. Read more.








Infographics Aside, Are Fragility Indices Useful?

By Bryony Lau and Patrick Barron



Devising quantitative measures of state weakness is big business in the development industry. As awareness of the importance of institutions to growth and peace has spread, development practitioners and policymakers have been served an ever-expanding smorgasbord of state fragility indices (see here, here, and here). Countries receive a numerical score based on a range of indicators deemed to capture the ability of states to serve their people. Read more.






Let’s rethink how we work in fragile states

By Patrick Safran, ADB Focal Point for Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations


“Without addressing fragility we cannot achieve sustained development progress.”


This statement was made recently by Dr. Rui Maria de Araújo, Prime Minister of Timor-Leste, one of several countries in Asia and the Pacific where development progress has traditionally been hampered by fragile and conflict-affected situations. In fragile states such as Timor-Leste, which gained its independence in 2002, achieving development gains is particularly challenging due to weak institutions, political instability or long exposure to internal conflict, and vulnerability to economic shocks or climate change in the form of natural disasters. Read more.






Working in conflict-affected areas – the Myanmar experience

By Elaine Thomas


A few weeks ago, staff from ADB’s Resident Mission in Myanmar went into the field to share information with communities and key stakeholders about the East-West Economic Corridor project, a road improvement project the Ministry of Construction is planning to implement with ADB financing in 2016. Read more.








Fragile and conflict-affected situations: Why they matter, and how aid can help

By Patrick Barron and Sasiwan Chingchit


Where governments do not function well, growth and sustainable development are rare, and destructive, violent conflicts are more likely. Working in such fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCASs)—common across Asia and the Pacific—requires development agencies, including ADB, to do business differently. This means cultivating a deeper understanding of fragility and conflict risks, and recognizing that successfully delivering assistance in these contexts demands a tailored response. Read more.


This blog was commissioned by ADB as part of a joint ADB-TAF workshop on assessing fragility held in Bangkok on 15-16 June, 2015, and originally published in the In Asia blog.







ADB, Asia Foundation hold experts' meeting on fragility assessment in Bangkok

By Jesusa Dela Cruz


ADB and The Asia Foundation jointly organized the Roundtable Expert’s Meeting on Assessing Fragility for a Differentiated Approach in Dealing with Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations on 15-16 June 2015 in Bangkok. A total of 23 experts and policymakers discussed fragility assessment best practices in subnational and transitional or turnaround situations, and how fragility and conflict assessments can best inform development partners and governments in order to contribute to effective programming and policy responses on the ground. See details and presentations.







What you need to know about the OECD’s new approach to fragile states

By ADB Blog Team on Fri, 29 May 2015


The Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation (OECD)’s new approach to fragile states assesses fragility as a universal issue that can affect all countries in different dimensions – not only those traditionally considered “fragile” or conflict-affected. This may lead to a whole new set of development interventions, according to OECD Lead Governance Advisor Sara Fyson, who sat down with us to discuss the findings of the recent report States of Fragility 2015 by the Paris-based organization's Governance for Peace and Development Team led by Jolanda Profos. Read more.






ADB's 5 tips for working in fragile states

By Lean Alfred Santos, Devex


In fragile and conflict-affected states, the rules are different, and international aid implementers need to adapt if they want their programs to be effective and achieve results.


That’s why the Asian Development Bank encourages aid groups, nongovernmental organizations, U.N. agencies and private firms to engage FCAS in a different way to avoid major human, social, economic and security costs. It’s not only that traditional approaches can be ineffective — they can also make it harder for these nations to build their capacity and transition to long-term stability. Read more.




Infrastructure development in fragile states: Is it worth it?

By Patrick Safran, ADB Focal Point for Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations


There is evidence from Cambodia to Afghanistan that taking a risk on infrastructure investment can yield great results, but it takes time to get the balance right.


Transport, energy, information and communication technology, and water infrastructure enable a state to grow its economy and improve the quality of life of its citizens. Infrastructure acts as the backbone of growth and social wellbeing – boosting employment, reducing the high costs of accessing markets, providing ways of reaching isolated communities, and ensuring access to basic services.


But is it really worth investing in infrastructure in situations of political instability, weak governance, economic insecurity, conflict and vulnerability to natural disasters? Our experience in the Asian Development Bank (ADB) shows that infrastructure investment can deliver greater economic returns in fragile states, if the work is done right. Read more.  


[Parts of this article were shared by Patrick Safran, ADB focal point for fragile situations, during the live chat debate on infrastructure development in fragile states organized by the Guardian's Global Development Professionals Network on 7 November 2013.]







Working Differently in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations

ADB encourages new thinking and mainstreaming of innovative approaches to help development practitioners more effectively plan, design, and implement projects in fragile and conflict-affected situations.

Why Do We Need to Work Differently in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations

ADB Vice President Stephen Groff talks about the need for development institutions to work differently in fragile and conflict-afffected situations. He emphasizes that political instability undermines economic growth; understanding political, cultural, and socio-economic issues is critical; and fragility is costly for the country, its citizens, neighboring countries, and the global community.

2007 ADB Approach to Weakly Performing Countries

Kazu Sakai, Chair, Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations Steering Committee and Director General, Strategy and Policy Department, talks about the 2007 ADB Approach to Weakly Performing Countries (which ADB now refers to as fragile and conflict-affected situations). The 2007 ADB Approach emphasizes long-term commitment, development partner coordination, and flexibility.

How Do We Operate in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations

Ayumi Konishi, Deputy Director General, Pacific Department, talks about using regional strategy for fragile Pacific countries, using interim strategy for Solomon Islands, and building local capacity for a water supply project in Timor-Leste. Tatsuya Kanai, Senior Advisor, Central and West Asia Department, shares on the infrastructure trust fund in Afghanistan. Claudia Buentjen, Principal Country Specialist, Philippines Country Office, discusses the use of conflict-sensitive approach in Mindanao Philippines. 


More Actions
Lotus Quickr Help Quickr Connectors About

Connect Lotus Quickr to the desktop applications that you use everyday. Download the connectors now.